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The Beheld
By Autumn Whitefield-Madrano
Examining questions surrounding personal appearance: What does it mean to be seen? What is the relationship between "beauty labor" and cultural visibility? And why do two lipstick shades combined always look better than one?
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Jennifer’s Body, Redux: The Case of the Incredible Shrinking Actresses


I mentioned this in my roundup last week but it’s pertinent to readers here: I penned a piece at Salon about the casting of Jennifer Lawrence as Katniss in The Hunger Games. You can read the whole piece here, but the argument in brief is this: Katniss is a prime role for a young actress, one that we knew would assure whomever was cast in the part instant fame—and Katniss’s thinness is not just a part of the character description in the books, but a part of the plot itself. So when virtually every other role written for 21-year-old women is filled by a rail-thin actress, why would Hollywood choose one of its few performers who doesn’t look underfed to play the part? I don’t think it’s just blind casting; I think it’s a message about the dearth of juicy roles for young actresses.

But one thing kept nagging at me about my own argument: Jennifer Lawrence was fantastic as Katniss. She nailed Katniss’s ferocity, her vulnerability, her dance of a child having become an adult too soon. While I think there was something else going on with the producers, at least subconsciously, it’s also hard to make the argument that it should have gone to [insert name of other talented Serious Young Actress who’s had a chance to show her chops in a well-written, complex role—oh wait, there aren’t many, that was the point of my piece]. So when people counter my argument with, “Well, they just chose the best actress for the part”—and when I don’t have a shred of hard evidence to support otherwise—part of me has to agree.

But I think that’s also a bit of a red herring, and here’s why: Talented actresses are asked all the time to manipulate their bodies in order to fit a role. Beyoncé for Dreamgirls, Charlize Theron for Monster, Rooney Mara for The Girl With the Dragon Tattoo, Renee Zellweger see-sawing between Bridget Jones and the other characters she played in the interim: Actresses don’t just get critical acclaim for physical transformation; they get press, and The Hunger Games team didn’t shy away from that. (It’s interesting that men seem to lose weight for roles more than women, but an easy answer to that is that actresses are usually so slender to begin with that there’s little weight loss to be done.) Hell, look at the number of ballet-inspired weight-loss workouts that popped up with Black Swan. Talent alone wasn’t enough for Darren Aronofsky to direct Serious Actress Natalie Portman—who was, of course, already whippet-thin—to not whittle her frame for the film. So I don’t quite buy that the producers would have gone with mere talent as the reason to not instruct Lawrence to lose weight to play a hungry Katniss.

Let me be crystal-clear: I’m in no way suggesting Lawrence should have lost weight for this role, and I’m wary of the practice. (Yes, actors’ bodies are their “instruments” and bodily manipulation is a part of the trade, but do we really need to be encouraging performers—actresses in particular—to be even more focused on their weight? I mean, Mila Kunis, who does not have an eating disorder, started mimicking eating disorder symptoms after Black Swan wrapped. What happens to performers already prone to disordered behavior is upsetting to think about.) My point is that it’s not like losing weight to play a character is somehow verboten in Hollywood, and that for a character who is described as underweight and chronically hungry, it might actually might have made logical sense. So the fact that Lawrence didn’t lose weight to play Katniss makes me think that The Hunger Games team had an investment in keeping Lawrence looking, well, normal. Part of that investment might have been to defuse accusations (perhaps from wary feminist bloggers comme moi) of having taken a proto-feminist character and made her adhere to the beauty standard even more than Lawrence—slender, white, angel-faced Lawrence—already does. But I think the larger investment is what I fingered in the Salon piece: Figuratively speaking, they wanted to add more weight to Katniss. And adding physical weight to the character as written was an easy way to do that.

This might seem like a counterintuitive argument, but when I look at Lawrence’s own account of the intersection between Katniss’s frame and her own, I become more convinced that her body became a portal for all sorts of ideas that weren’t really about Katniss as written by Suzanne Collins. “You can’t diet,” Lawrence told UK Glamour. “Katniss is meant to be a hunter; she’s meant to be scary. Kate Moss running at you with a bow and arrow isn’t scary.” (Actually, that sounds terrifying, but I’ll give her a pass.) Decontextualized it’s sound logic, but within The Hunger Games it’s backward: Katniss, hailing from an impoverished part of the nation, should be feeling afraid of the heavier, stronger female contestants from the better-fed districts. The whole point is that Katniss survives through her agility, skill, and determination, not her muscle power—that despite the odds being never in her favor, she embodies the name of the Hunger Games better than any other contestant in the arena. Yes, Katniss could ostensibly have muscle from her outings in the meadow. But it wasn’t Lawrence’s biceps that made her ferocious in the movie; it was the intensity of her performance.

And again, in an ideal world, that’s how it should be. I’d love to think that Lawrence was cast solely because she gave a better audition for Katniss than any other actress could. But Hollywood rarely does blind casting; certainly it didn’t for The Hunger Games (as evidenced in part by the despicable number of people who were not only surprised that Rue was played by a young black actress but claimed that her race made the character less sympathetic—which, I mean, did they see the same movie I did? Or, for that matter, read the same book, in which Rue was explicitly described as dark-skinned?). They were extraordinarily fidelitous to Collins’s books—even minor characters like Cato were cast pretty much exactly how I’d envisioned them. (Except Woody Harrelson, but whatever.)

So I’m tending to think something is up here. But at the same time, I’m wondering if I’m adding to the problem by hinging an argument upon the body size of an actress—whose job should first and foremost be to act, which Lawrence did splendidly. I stand by my arguments but I’m wondering what you think. Was Jennifer Lawrence’s casting in The Hunger Games simply an instance of talent trumping letter-perfect character description? Was there something else going on? Was it a reconception of Katniss as having a different sort of strength—the “she’s meant to be scary” strength Lawrence references? Is this a step toward blind casting? And, on a slightly different note, are there ways to discuss the bodies of specific individuals without making value judgments that contribute to the larger problem of evaluating women for their bodies?

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4 Responses to “Jennifer’s Body, Redux: The Case of the Incredible Shrinking Actresses”

  1. JenG says:

    Jennifer Lawrence made a great Katniss, and certainly her ability to portray the character so well must have been a big part of the casting decision… but the other half of it is that Katniss was not supposed to read as “beautiful” until after Cinna transformed her. She wasn’t supposed to be beautiful until a lot of fucking work got done on her. Choosing an actress that’s actually bigger/curvier/musclier than the character was supposed to be (bigger/curvier/musclier than we typically imagine to be beautiful) was how they made this come across. They picked a girl who looks (Hollywood) average so that the difference between “regular” Katniss and fancied up Katniss would be clear for the viewing audience.

  2. Charles says:

    Hi Autumn!

    I always like your essays.

    Jennifer Lawrence was wonderful in the movie, but I hypothesize that a lot factors went into her casting:

    There aren’t a lot of actresses in that age range / career point. Kristen Stewart is now trying to solidify her stardom by doing stand-alone movies like Snow White or the On The Road adaptation that’s coming soon. They could have cast Dakota Fanning, who’s rail thin, but maybe her recent roles have given her a little too much edge to be the relatable, maternal heroin of Hunger Games.

    Also, Jennifer Lawrence was coming off Winter’s Bone where (at least, according to the one sheet) she played a girl running through the woods trying to save her family. Hollywood doesn’t like to stretch or think too far outside of the box on something that could become a billion-plus dollar franchise. With Winter’s Bone she proved she could convincingly play the heroic girl in nature. So that movie was a hell of an audition for this role.

    Regarding her body vs a model-thin type girl, I think it helped soften the graphic nature of the violence in the book. It made the movie more PG-13. Had they cast a rail thin, anorexic type, with hollow cheeks and sinewy arms, it would have made the poverty and hunger of the people in the outlying districts more tangible, more graphic. For the kids in the audience, the poor people needed to look like normal people who just needed a bath. The big challenge in turning the books into a film was to keep enough violence to elicit emotions from the audience but not so much that parents or the MPAA kept kids out of the theaters with an R-rating.



  3. Spenser says:

    One factor that could have played into the decision is that the people of the Capitol are so highly “feminized” in their appearance (lots of makeup, brightly-colored clothing, little emphasis on physical strength in either manner or appearance, etc.); because of this, it may have been a conscious choice not to slim Lawrence down in order to “masculinize” her appearance and thus create a stronger contrast with the people of the Capitol.

    (I’m sure someone somewhere has noted this before me, but I didn’t see it touched on here so there you go.)

  4. Derrick Mims says:

    Interesting article. I found it because I just watched X-Men First Class for the first time after seeing Hunger Games twice.

    One of my first comments to myself was how Lawrence appears to have lost weight for Katniss. She’s fantastically beautiful as Mystique, but she definitely seems bigger than Katniss.

    Of course, it may be that she’s intentionally dressed to be a bit “thicker” because she’s constantly covering herself — sweaters, turtlenecks, jackets, etc. It makes the point of her hiding, as well as allows the “nude” Mystique to be sexier.

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